Needs and Options in the Use of External Advice: A Typology

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What is “external advice”? We understand external to refer to anybody not employed by Government and advice to refer to any input of information that may affect the basis for decision-making or decision-making itself. As such it is difficult (and ill-advised, we would argue) to make a clear differentiation between “advice” and “consultation.” There is a gradient between obtaining expert advice from a single person all the way up to the institutionalised consultations provided by democratic instruments. This typology, written for Health Canada, surveys all types of advice based on the needs of the organisation and based on the options that are, in principle, available. It is has been written as an annotated checklist that can be used to support a systematic approach to obtaining external advice in any public organisation.

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Institute on Governance

Institute on Governance

Founded in 1990, the Institute on Governance (IOG) is an independent, Canada-based, not-for-profit public interest institution with its head office in Ottawa and an office in Toronto. Our mission is ‘advancing better governance in the public interest,’ which we accomplish by exploring, developing and promoting the principles, standards and practices which underlie good governance in the public sphere, both in Canada and abroad.

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