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Promises to forge a new nation-to-nation relationship with the Indigenous Peoples of Canada, a federal government priority, will not be fully fulfilled overnight. The foundations of an effective relationship are trust and mutual respect, and these take time to build. Governments will need to work with Indigenous people to develop a blueprint with tangible objectives for a renewed relationship. Relationships must transform before systems can transform. As Justice Murray Sinclair has noted, “Reconciliation is about forging and maintaining respectful relationships. There are no shortcuts.” This discussion paper focuses on four themes that are central to the nation-to-nation relationship: nation building and nation re-building; jurisdiction; new intergovernmental fiscal relationships; and wealth creation.