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the Institute on Governance.

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Définir lagouv·ern·ance

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4 minutes de lecture

Le concept de gouvernance est difficile à définir de façon simple.

L’exercice d’une gouvernance est nécessaire au moment que des personnes se regroupent à une fin particulière. La documentation sur la gouvernance propose plusieurs définitions, dont la plupart reposent sur trois dimensions : l’autorité, la prise de décision et l'imputabilité. La définition de l'Institut se résume à: qui détient le pouvoir, qui prend les décisions, comment les intervenants se font entendre et dernièrement l'exercice de l'imputabilité.

En somme, la gouvernance est la façon dont la société et les groupes qui y sont à l'intérieur, se regroupent afin de prendre des décisions.

O Canada! Inhabited for millennia by distinctive Indigenous groups, Canada is a federal state, officially bilingual and multicultural at the federal level, formed by two founding nations with two principal legal traditions.

Une analyse approfondie de cette définition simple engendre trois questions:

1Qui fait entendre sa voix dans le processus décisionnel?
2Quel est le processus décisionnel?
3Qui est imputable dans ce processus décisionnel?

Les défis de gouvernance peuvent inclure:

  • La représentation efficace d'une population diverse;
  • Une population vieillisante;
  • L'intégration des réseaux de transport;
  • La mitigation des changements climatiques;
  • Le rythme accéléré du monde;
  • Les technologies pertubatrices qui propulsent et facilitent l'évolution quant à l'élaboration des politiques, à la prestation de services, et au militantisme citoyen;
  • Les attentes s'accentue et désormais la relation entre gouvernement et citoyen est en pleine évolution;
  • Le renouvellement des principes de vie privée;
  • La maîtrise des données gouvernementales;
  • La façon d'intégrer le militantisme citoyen à une participation citoyenne directe entre les périodes électorales.

Dès lors, on ne peut plus compter sur un contrôle rigide des données, des décisions et de l'agenda social.

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How governance is evolving

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Today, a broad range of factors shares our current governance environment:

  • Income growth
  • educational attainment
  • growing aspirations
  • technology and the information revolution
  • as well as globalization and harsh fiscal realities

Citizens with more knowledge, education, and affluence want faster and more transparent accountability from their government’s and are showing less deference to governments that speak or decide for them.

With social and economic complexity, the very shape of government has changed.

New functions have brought new institutional arrangements, a host of agencies, boards, commissions, and corporations designed to advise, regulate, adjudicate and deliver services.

Their relationships with government and the governed are multifaceted and complex. This is the world of distributed governance and this is not an easy environment to navigate.

Governance in Canada continues to evolve, for one thing, the role of provinces has grown, this is due to demands for devolution led by Quebec, and a changing economy as natural resource revenue grew in the west, and manufacturing shrank in Central Canada. Also demands by indigenous groups for a greater role in decision making has led to new forms of governance.

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Five Principles of Good Governance

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Defining the principles of good governance is difficult and controversial. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) enunciates a set of principles that, with slight variations, appear in much of the literature. There is strong evidence that these UNDP–based principles have a claim to universal recognition. In grouping them under five broad themes, the Institute on Governance recognizes that these principles often overlap or are conflicting at some point, that they play out in practice according to the actual social context, that applying such principles is complex and that they are all about not only the results of power but how well it is exercised.

Legitimacy and Voice

  • Participation – all men and women should have a voice in decision-making, either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their intention. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively.
  • Consensus orientation – good governance mediates
    differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures.

Direction

  • Strategic vision – leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. There is also an understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which that perspective is grounded.

Performance

  • Responsiveness – institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders.
  • Effectiveness and efficiency – processes and institutions produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources.

Accountability

  • Accountability – decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society organizations are accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. This accountability differs depending on the organizations and whether the decision is internal or external.
  • Transparency – transparency is built on the free
    flow of information. Processes, institutions and information are directly accessible to those concerned with them, and enough information is provided to understand and monitor them.

Fairness

  • Equity – all men and women have opportunities to improve or maintain their well- being.
  • Rule of Law – legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially, particularly the laws on human rights.